Conditions Treated
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Perthes disease
  • Clubfoot or Congenital talipes     equinovarus
  • Leg length discrepancy
  • Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
  • Scoliosis
  • Congenital coxa vara
  • Normal variants in children
  • Congenital dislocation of the patella
  • Arthrogryposis and congenital joint     contracture syndromes
  • Patellar Subluxation
  • Anterior knee pain    Patellofemoral pain     syndromes
  • Genu varum (Bow legs)
  • Genu valgum (Knock knees)
  • Blount's disease
  • Congenital Pseudarthrosis of the    tibia
  • Congenital posteromedial tibial    bowing
  • Metatarsus adductus
  • Postural foot deformities
  • Rocker bottom foot
  • Tarsal coalition
  • Neuromuscular disorders
  • Spina bifida or Myelomeningocoele
  • Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis
  • Skeletal dysplasias (Achondroplasia     Short Stature)
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta
  • Arthrogryposis Multiplex    Congenita
  • Marfan's syndrome
  • Orthopaedic problems in Down's     syndrome
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Chondroectodermal dysplasia
  • Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber    syndrome
  • Rickets
  • Limb deficiencies
  • Juvenile Inflammatory Arthritis
  • Acute and Chronic osteomyelitis in     childhood and its sequelae
  • Avascular necrosis of the hip
  • Septic arthritis and its effects
  • All fractures and dislocations in     children
  • Surgical and Non surgical Procedures
  • Open reduction for congenital hip     dislocation
  • Pemberton pelvic osteotomy
  • Salter Pelvic osteotomy
  • Triple pelvic osteotomy
  • Ganz or Bernese osteotomy for hip     dysplasia
  • Ponseti method for CTEV or clubfoot
  • Femoral osteotomy for Perthes     disease and DDH
  • Soft tissue releases for cerebral     palsy
  • Tibial osteotomy
  • Ilizarov hip reconstruction surgery
  • Leg lengthening and deformity     correction using Ilizarov fixator and     LRS system
  • Achilles tendon lengthening
  • Tibialis anterior tendon transfer
  • Tibialis posterior tendon transfer
  • Complex foot osteotomies
  • Triple arthrodesis of the foot
  • Subtalar fusion surgery for deformity
  • 8-plate procedure for deformity     correction
  • French osteotomy for cubitus varus
  • Insall procedure and Fulkerson     osteotomy for recurrent
  • Telescopic rodding in Osteogenesis     Imperfecta
  • Femoral extension osteotomy for     knee flexion contracture
  • Genu valgum (Knock knees)

    Knock knees of Genu Valgum is a condition in which the knees touch, but the ankles do not touch. The legs angle inward.


    Infants start out with bowlegs because of their folded position in the uterus. The infant's bowlegs begin to straighten once the child starts to walk (at about 12 to 18 months). By age 3, the child develops knocked knees. When the child stands, the knees touch but the ankles are apart. By puberty, the legs straighten out and most children can stand with the knees and ankles touching (without forcing the position). Knock knees can also develop as a result of a medical problem or disease, such as:
    • Injury of the shinbone (only one leg will be knock-kneed)
    • Osteomyelitis (bone infection)
    • Overweight or obesity
    • Rickets (a disease caused by a lack of vitamin D)

    Knock knees Treatment

    Knock knees in children are usually not treated. If the problem is still present after age 7, the child may use a night brace, which is attached to a shoe or orthopedic shoe. Surgery may be considered to correct knock knees that persist beyond late childhood and in which the separation between the ankles is severe.

    Outlook (Prognosis)

    Children normally outgrow knock knees without treatment, unless it is caused by a disease. For cases needing surgery, the procedure provides good cosmetic results.

    Possible Complications

    • Difficulty walking (very rare)
    • Self-esteem changes related to cosmetic appearance of knock knees
    • If left untreated, knock knees can lead to early arthritis of the knee


    There is no known prevention for normal knock knees.
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